457 Visa in this financial Year

From the 1st of July 2015 the following has altered for the 457 visa:

The skilled Occupations List (SOL) has had the following categories removed:

  • Urban and regional Planner 232611
  • Dental specialist 252311
  • Dentist 252312

These occupations do remain on the consolidated Sponsored Occupations List (CSOL), and as such they remain valid options for state or employer sponsorship.

The following occupations have been added to the SOL:

  • Panel beater 324111
  • Cabinetmaker 394111

The accounting occupation has remained on the SOL, but the number of places has been reduced by over 50%. There are only 2,525 places for the 2016 year, and they look to have been filled.

Nursing has had a slight reduction, but this is unimportant as the number of places is far from being filled. Nursing has 14,872 places for the 2016 year, with less than 20% presently being accommodated.

Strangely the Primary school teacher 241213 occupation has been removed from the CSOL list, meaning it is no longer eligible for state or employer sponsored visas. It remains on the SOL, however, indicating that teachers are still needed in some areas.

If you feel your situation has changed, talk to Hope immigration lawyers, Sydney.

Brake Pads, Sydney

Why replace brake pads?

Obviously the most common reason for getting new brake pads is to replace older, worn pads. This is simply part of the ongoing cost of maintaining a car. Worn brake pads affect the performance of your vehicle; accidents are far more costly than regular maintenance. When a car goes from worn old brake pads to new pads the difference in performance is quite noticeable, often to the point that the driver has to get used to how the car handles/ replacing the pads more often reduces this change.

Different brake pads for your car

You may notice more than one option in the brake pads catalogue for your model of car. It is quite possible that your model of car sees different conditions depending on where and how it is driven, or that different counties have different expectations for braking performance. European manufacturers often emphasis very smooth and solid performance with brakes. Unfortunately this type of pad wears very quickly, giving both a reduced operational life and a problem with accumulating dust (from the wearing pad) in the vehicle’s mechanism. Replacing these brake pads can be a smart move. Brake pads designed for long term use in general driving can provide comparable performance to the pads that came with the car, only with longer service and far less dust problems. Talk to brake pads suppliers about different options for your car’s brakes.

Issues with Pads

Some older brakes used asbestos, which has now been linked to serious health concerns. This is no longer much of an issue as these older style pads have long since been replaced. Unless a car has been sitting in a garage for several decades it is unlikely to have asbestos components.

Rumours circulate on the internet that brakes contain mercury and aluminium, and that this is a hazard. Aluminium is used in some brake mechanisms, but this has never been considered dangerous. Mercury does not appear to have ever been used in brake pads. Confusion many be due to the fact that there is a brake manufacturing company named Mercury.

Brake materials

Metal Pads are used almost exclusively for racing vehicles. They do endure continual use, but they quickly wear the car’s rotors.

Non-metallic pads are popular with European cars. They are gentle but wear quickly and produce dust.

Semi-metallic pads are popular. They last longer than non-metallic pads and only cause moderate mechanical wear. They do require more force than noon-metallic systems.

Ceramic Brake pads are quiet and a good compromise between durability and performance. They are less able to dissipate heat, however, so warping can occur when surrounding materials and the ceramic pads reach different temperatures.


Due to the popularity of refitting more suitable brake pads many services centres buy replacements for European brake pads wholesale, allowing a relatively inexpensive upgrade for a vehicle’s system. It is unnecessary to use faster wearing or sports brake pads on Sydney roads. Popular ceramic, metal or part-metal pads provide dependable long term braking performance

Thanks to Icer Brakes Oceania for the blog post. To find a brake pad for your vehicle, feel free to visit Icer Oceania.

Things to do in Sydney

You can spend a day just walking the sights. Sydney is a large city if you include the outer suburbs, and there is a lot to see out there. But the CBD can be browsed in a day’s travel. You can start at Circular Quay and see The Rocks, the Opera House, and the Harbour Bridge. The Botanic gardens are near hare, and worth a fair amount of time. You can walk from here or catch a train to Town Hall station and see the Queen Victoria Building for some shopping. From here it’s only a short walk to Darling Harbour.

Sydney habour

A first day walk is a good way to gather information about the specifics; you find the museums and attractions that you want to spend some time at latter. Some of the better known are:

  • The world’s largest Imax theatre
  • The Sydney Aquarium
  • Wildlife Zoo
  • Madam Tussards Wax works
  • The Maritime Museum
  • The Powerhouse Museum
  • Centrepoint Tower
  • Bondi Beach
  • The Opera House, both the events inside and the building itself.

An alternative to walking Sydney is to take a Harbour cruise. The guide will point out many sights, and you can chase up the ones that interest you the most. Else, you can use the Red Explorer Bus.

Tours can often be arranged through the same company that does airport transfers. A day tour of Sydney can focus on shopping, where the shuttle can carry your accumulated souvenirs, or on historic sights, a trip to the theatre; if you have time you can leave Sydney for the day and go on a wine tour. The Sydney airport shuttles often run multiple services for tourists and locals.


There are several tests used to assess an immigrants English language skills. IELTS is the most common one used in Australia. It has four components: speaking, listening, reading and writing. Unlike TOEFL, which tests some of these areas in combination, the IELTS test does not use computer assessment; it is all either handwritten or spoken directly to an assessor.

IELTS is run in two streams, an academic and general, with a combined global total of 2 million people sitting it each year. Both streams are designed for language use as it would be encountered by the individual, either as a student or under general employment. Over 9000 international institutions recognise the test as part of their entrance requirements,

The four components of the test are assessed and recorded separately on a scale of 1 to 9, 9 being the highest grade. A minimum of grade of 6 is expected in each component for any individual seeking to immigrate to Australia via the general IELTS test. Potential university or other tertiary students are expected to take the academic strand of the course, and often expected to achieve a 7 or better in each category. Requirements vary largely on the individual course student wish to undertake, and also the institution itself. Most journalism and language orientated courses require an 8.5 or better in every category. Non-language university courses still require acceptable English levels for admission.

It is not unusual for professional practices in Australia to have language requirements above the minimum level needed to immigration. In some cases the language requirement for studying and qualifying in a particular files is not as high as the English language level required to later practice in that same field. Student may need to re-take the IELTS test after graduation in order to demonstrate an acceptable improvement in their language ability.

Tutoring is often necessary for success in the IELTS test, particularity for potential university applicants and graduates who need to improve their rankings. Individuals who learn the language later in life, acquire it as a second language, or who learnt informally, often require some formal instruction for a more comprehensive understanding. This can be of particular use of the written skills lag behind the spoken skills. Students often benefit from instruction that shows the more formal approach needed for written English abilities, and shows where the two aspects of the language differ.

Global Language Academy’s IELTS courses are designed to give a thorough and comprehensive understanding of the English language with 10 hours of class preparation. Like the IELTS test itself the classes are designed for practical use. Undertaking the classes is often a wise move financially as the improved test result outweighs the possibility of failing and being forced to retake the test.